Colors of Slavery

Ownership, Freedom and exploitation come in shades of grey. They exist on spectrums. Historians and sociologists have attempted to delineate categories on the spectrum in order to determine if we can really talk about slavery as something separate from other forms of forced labor or involuntary servitude.

The main category on this continual dependence other than slavery is Serfdom – this is usually associated with Europe which goes back to ancient Greece. Laborers, usually peasant farmers were free in the sense that they owned their own clothes, tools and livestock and devoured the fruits of their labor, but they were bound to the land on which they lived or to the landlord wherever he might go. Serfdom in Europe exists as the status of something separate from forced forms of labor or servitude.

The other main category is master servant relationship. As Dr Jonathan Brown, in his lecture Jonathan Brown Slavery explains, is when Serfdom disappeared in Western Europe, it was replaced by relationship between the labor and the landowner/ employee. Online our modern notion of worker’s contracts however, failing to live up to this contract was a criminal offense, only in the British colonies in North America did the notion of free labor eventually appeared in the 1700s. This did not make its way back to Europe until late 1870s.

The third shade of slavery is called the debt servitude has been one of the widespread forms of forced labor. When a person is unable to repay debt, he or she becomes a slave of the creditor. This was extremely common in South East Asia, where the Western model of slavery was rare.

Finally, the bonded labor or indebted servitude. This is similar to debt servitude and is very common in history. A person willingly enters into an agreement to exchange their labor and the loss of some freedoms for a fixed period of time in return for some service or upfront payment.

These shades are not fixed or solid. They bleed into each other, making it very hard to identify a clear line distinguishing slavery from there forms of coerced labor, reinforcing Dr Jonathan Brown’s notion of slavery being an ambiguous term.

Simple Tips to Improve Your Handwriting

Graphology is a field of study that examines and analyses handwriting. This field of science states that an individual’s handwriting can reveal a great deal about his or her personality and current state of mood. This is why it is important for you to make sure that you have a good, readable handwriting. Bad handwriting can influence your teacher to mark your paper badly even if you have written the right answers. Therefore, make sure to follow the tips given below to improve your handwriting style.

Get a Good Grasp

The way you hold the pen or pencil can affect your handwriting to a great extent. Hold the pen from the top part and try to write your name. It is quite difficult, isn’t it? The further your hand is away from the point, the harder it will be for you to write properly. The ideal way to use a pen is to hold it in place with your thumb, index and middle finger.

Use the Right Equipment

Apart from your personal skills, the equipment you use can influence your handwriting too. For instance, if your pencil is not properly sharpened or if the pen has a low ink level, your writing can look ugly. Thus, you need to invest on reliable and effective stationary items in order to make sure that your writing is not affected by the equipment you use. When making stationary purchases, opt for modern equipment such as electronic pencil sharpeners since they are much more effective.

Follow the Lines

The easiest way to get a neat handwriting is to practice on lined paper. When practicing, make sure to fill the lined space completely. Lines not only enable you to write straight, but they help you to adjust the size of your letters too. If your letters are in the right size and proportion, your handwriting will become automatically beautiful.

Furthermore, you need to slow down your pace too. Rushing can make it difficult for you to control your handwriting. Therefore, lower the pressure on the pen and reduce your speed of writing. This will definitely make a visible change in your handwriting.